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Section 494 Of Indian Penal Code, Bigamy

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Section 494 IPC, Bigamy Bigamy :- • it means the act of marrying while already married to another person. • The offence of bigamy or marrying again during lifetime of husband or wife is punishable under section 494 of the Penal code (S. 494) and under section 17 of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. Section 494 IPC reads as:- • Section 494.- Marrying again during lifetime of husband or wife.- Whoever having a husband or wife living, marries in any case in which such marriage is void by reason of its taking place during the life of such husband or wife, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine. • Exception.- This section does not extend to any person whose marriage with such husband or wife has been declared void by a court of competent jurisdiction, nor to any person who contracts a marriage during the life of a former husband or wife, if such husband or wife, at the time of the subs

Outraging Modesty Of Women

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Section 354 - 1 to 5 years punishment , or with fine or both. presence/absence of consent of the woman is the deciding factor in this offence. who is woman ? Section 10 defines 'Man' and 'Woman' as a male and female human being respectively of any age. Modesty of woman - Modesty of a woman is a virtue attached to a woman owing to her 'sex'. Section 354 :- Outraging Modesty of Woman 1) A woman was assaulted or Criminal force was used against her. 2) The accused intended to outrage her modesty or know that her modesty was likely to be outraged. Section  354  IPC : Assault or criminal force to woman with intent to outrage her modesty :- Whoever assaults or uses criminal force to any woman, intending to outrage or knowing it to be likely that he will thereby outrage her modesty, [ shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which shall not be less than one year but which may extend to five years, and shall also be

Directive Principles of State Policy

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Directive Principles of State Policy Directive Principles of State Policy:Introduction and Meaning Unlike Fundamental Rights, the Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP) are non-justiciable which means they are not enforceable by the courts for their violation. However, the Constitution itself declares that these principles are fundamental in the governance of the country and it shall be the duty of the state to apply these principles in making laws. Hence, they impose a moral obligation on the state authorities for their application. List of DPSPs under Indian Constitution Article 36: Defines State as same as Article 12 unless the context otherwise defines. Article 37: Application of the Principles contained in this part. Article 38: It authorizes the state to secure a social order for the promotion of the welfare of people. Article 39: Certain principles of policies to be followed by the state. Article 39A: Equal justice and free legal aid. Article 40: Organization of village pan

Fundamental Duties of Indian Citizen

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The fundamental duties of citizens were added to the constitution by the 42nd Amendment in 1976, upon the recommendations of the Swaran SinghCommittee that was constituted by the government earlier that year.[18][103] Originally ten in number, the fundamental duties were increased to eleven by the 86th Amendment in 2002, which added a duty on every parent or guardian to ensure that their child or ward was provided opportunities for education between the ages of six and fourteen years.[58] The other fundamental duties obligate all citizens to respect the national symbols of India, including the constitution, to cherish its heritage, preserve its composite culture and assist in its defence. They also obligate all Indians to promote the spirit of common brotherhood, protect the environment and public property, develop scientific temper, abjure violence, and strive towards excellence in all spheres of life.[104] In case of violation of fundamental duties enshrined in the constitution by a

Fundamental Rights in Indian Constitution

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Fundamental Rights in Indian Constitution  Fundamental rights are those rights which are essential for intellectual, moral and spiritual development of citizens of India. As these rights are fundamental or essential for existence and all-round development of individuals, hence, they are called 'Fundamental rights'. These are enshrined in Part III (Articles 12 to 35) of the Constitution of India. These include individual rights common to most, such as, equality before the law, freedom of speech and freedom of expression, religious and cultural freedom, Freedom of assembly (peaceful assembly), freedom of religion (freedom to practice religion), right to constitutional remedies for the protection of civil rights by means of writssuch as Habeas Corpus, Mandamus, Prohibition, Certiorari and Quo Warranto. Fundamental rights apply universally to all citizens, irrespective of race, birthplace, religion, caste or gender. The Indian Penal Code and other laws prescribe punishments for the

Emergency provisions in indian constitution.

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*Provision of Emergency* Emergency provision in indian constitution. 1) Emergency means a failure of social system to deliver reasonable conditions of life. 2) it mean some circumstances arise suddenly that needs immediate action by public authority. 3) part-18th of Indian Constitution contain emergency provision. 4) emergency provision are borrowed from co constitution Germany.  In India president has the authority to declare Three Types of emergency. 1) National Emergency  2) State Emergency  3) Financial Emergency        National Emergency :- Art-352 of Indian Constitution deals with national emergency. 2) when the president is not satisfied with the security of India, where there is any threat of War, external aggression or armed rebellion, then he may impose national emergency. 3) it can be declared over the entire territory of India or any part there of.           Procedure :- 1) it is imposed after receiving a written requested by The council of minister headed by Prime Minister

Classification of property under Hindu law, types of property.

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Classification of property under Hindu law :- In Hindu law property are of two types :- 1) Coparcenary property (Joint family property) 2) Self- acquired propety (Separate property) Coparcenary property is of two types :- Joint family property or Coparcenary property signifies the property in which all the coparcener have community of interest and Unity of possession. Such Property consist of :- a) Ancestral property b) property joint acquired by the members of joint family. c) blended property d) property acquired by utilising Coparcenary property. *Ancestral property* 1) It is the species of coparcenary on joint family property. 2) Ancestral property means property inherited from father, grandfather & great grand father upto 3 degrees. 3) following kind of properties will constitutes ancestral property. 4) property allotted at the time of partition. 5) such property will divide by survivorship & not by succession. 6) Here male issue of the coparcener acquire an in

A guardian is a person who is appointed to look after another person or his property.

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*Guardianship* Guardian :- The term 'Guardian' is defined in the Guardian and word act as a person having the care of the person of a minor or of his property or of both his person and his property. *Meaning of Guardianship* The term 'Guardianship' connotes the G guardianship of a minor a minor is one who has not, attained the age of majority. As regards withotgers matters of gursdianship of person and property a muslim will be governed by majority act which prescribe 18 years as the age of majority. which 21 years is the ageof majority if the minor is under the court of wards or guardian has been appointed by the court. *Appointment of Guardian* When the court is satisfied that it is for the Welfare of a minor that an order should be made for appointing a guardian of his person or property, the court mein make an order accordingly. Section 15(1) :- of the guardian and word act 1980 permit for the appointment of joint guardian and if any one of them has died,

Deviance describes an action or behaviour that violates social norms.

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Concept of social Deviance :- 1) The literal meaning of the word 'Deviance' means breaking something or diverging from something. 2) therefore social deviance means breaking or diverging from social norms, values, rules and regulations. 3) social deviance refer to modes of action, which do not confirm to the norms or values held by most of the members of a group or society. 4) what is regarded as 'Deviance' is as widely variable as the norm and values are different in each colour and societies. Social Deviance a) Concept of social deviance b) Theories of social Deviance c) Functionalist Theory d) Conflict theory e) Forms of social Deviance Also ideas of social of social Deviance are challenged and change from one period to another. • For example, a woman choosing to become an astronaut as deviant just a few decades ago, but now it is an inspirational feat in the same. • there are four type of deviant members :- 1) Innovators 2) Ritualists 3) Retreal

Alientation of Coparcenary property :- Alienation means transfer of property such as gifts, sales, mortgage etc.

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Alientation of property Meaning of Alientation :- it means transfer or ownership of property and possession of lands, tenants or the things to another person. Who can alienate coparcenary :- 1) Father's power pf Alientation - The power of mitakshara father as Karta of the family to bind his infant son with regard to disposal or management of joint family property are wider than those of the karta of such famlies. 2) father as Karta can alignment family property for the following :- • legal necessity • benfit of the estate • as a gift of ancestral movable and immovable properties with in a reasonable limit out of love and affection to wife daughter son-in-law daughter-in-law like jewellery gold cloth for cash. • as a gift of ancestral property with reasonable limit for pions power. 2) Karta's power of Alientation :- • An Alientation made by the managers of the family without legal necessity is not valid, but voidable at the option of other coparcener but can have power of